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Ripley: The Races of Europe 325 

Nomadism of the Pastoral Races. Nomadism is regarded by our author 
as an important factor in the development of civilization and a great part 
of the volume is given up to the consideration of nomadic peoples. The 
regions of culture form a comparatively narrow zone extending from 
Europe and the Sahara across southern Asia to the East, though the pre- 
ponderance in area of the pastoral tribes is, perhaps, recent. A great state- 
creating power distinguishes the nomad, whose military character enables 
him to bind together the easily disintegrable sedentary races. Possess- 
ing the will and force to rule he yet learns much from his subjects as the 
Romans learnt from the Greeks and the Germans from the Romans. It 
is on rich soil and with vigorous labor that culture advances ; thus popu- 
lations grow dense and that is what culture needs for its development and 
diffusion. Ratzel derives both Egyptian and Chinese culture, at least in 
their origins, from Mesopotamia, but leaves the question of Accadians 
and Sumerians to historical enquirers. In the detailed survey of the Cul- 
tured Races of Africa separate sections are assigned to Islam, the Red 
Sea Group of Races, Life in the Nomad Districts of Africa and Arabia, 
the Abyssinians, the Berbers, the Races of the Sahara, the Soudan and its 
Peoples, the Fulbes, Fulahs, or Fullahtahs, and the Dark Races of the 
Western Soudan. Theories regarding the origin and relationships of 
the Berbers are not offered, but an instructive comparison with the Arabs 
is presented. This method of treatment is again noticeable in the sec- 
tion upon the Mongols, Tibetans, and Turkic Races, where no specula- 
tions are indulged in concerning the admixture of Caucasic blood and 
little is said about the early migrations of these peoples. The principal 
centres of culture are described separately and chapters are added upon 
the History of Civilization in Eastern Asia ; the Family, Society, and 
State, chiefly in China ; and Asiatic forms of belief and systems of 
religion. The concluding forty pages deal with the peoples of Caucasia 
and the Europeans. The account of the former is very brief, that of the 
latter scarcely less so though for good reason. Ratzel hesitates to denote 
these races by the term "historical," for he consistently maintains 
throughout the work that all races have their task apportioned and it is 
only in a special sense that we can restrict the term " historical " to Euro- 
peans. Here " ethnology lays the pen down for history to take it up." 

Frank Russell. 

The Races of Europe ; A Sociological Study. By William Z. Rip- 
ley, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Sociology, Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology, Lecturer on Anthropology at Colum- 
bia University. [With a supplementary volume] , A Selected 
Bibliography of the Anthropology and Ethnology of Europe, pub- 
lished by the Trustees of the Boston Public Library. (New 
York : D. Appleton and Co. 1899. Pp. xxxii, 624, 160.) 
Dr. Ripley's book meets a genuine need. For forty years past, dili- 
gent anthropological workers in all parts of Europe have been working 


26 Reviews of Books 

at local problems. Measurements and observations have been made upon 
hundreds of thousands of individuals representing the populations of many 
and widely scattered districts. These workers were so absorbed in their 
local problems that they overlooked or failed to grasp general problems. 
Their conclusions, while often valuable, frequently suffered from the 
failure to take a broad view. There was great confusion, amounting at 
times to discord or contradiction, when conclusions of different workers 
were compared. The data so diligently accumulated were accessible with 
difficulty, being scattered through government reports, scientific period- 
icals, and the proceedings of learned societies. The material was diffi- 
cult of study, as it had been gathered by different systems of examination 
and measurement, and had been dealt with by differing mathematical 
methods. The need of the hour was synthesis of these results. This 
work of synthesis, a difficult and somewhat thankless task, Dr. Ripley has 
undertaken. He attempts to bring order out of confusion, to combine 
and harmonize results, to present at one view the acquired facts. The 
importance and pressing nature of the work appears from the fact that, 
at about the same time, three workers have attempted it. Ripley in 
America, Keane in England, and Deniker in France, have just made or 
are making general statements regarding the Races of Europe. Keane 
can hardly be called an independent worker in this field ; while differing 
somewhat from the others he has been so much influenced by Ripley's 
views that he may almost be said to be an expounder of them. Deniker 
diverges from both and presents a completely independent and notably 
peculiar scheme. 

Our author begins with some preliminary observations. He empha- 
sizes the fact that language, nationality, and race are independent of each 
other. Loss of clearness and serious error always result from neglect of 
this fact. The same language may be spoken by peoples of different 
races and by different nations. A language, developed by a given popu- 
lation in a definite area, may spread beyond its original area, among, 
neighboring populations ; or it may shrink until it is spoken by a mere 
fragment of the people that gave it birth. The boundaries of a nation 
may be changed by the stroke of a pen or by a single battle, irrespective 
of the languages spoken or the races represented in the area affected. 

Dr. Ripley's study is founded on physical characters. Race types- 
are definite combinations of physical characters, which persist through 
generations. There are three physical characters which have been most 
widely studied — head form, color, and stature — and to these three our 
author gives particular attention. He considers the first of these of the 
most importance as he believes it to be the least changeable. He dis- 
cusses each of these fundamental characters in a distinct chapter. Gath- 
ering the data regarding each, not only from all parts of Europe but also 
from the whole world, he discusses them and then presents the facts 
graphically in shaded maps. Two series of maps are given, one showing 
the geographical distribution of head form, of color, and of stature, 
through the world, the other the distribution of the same characters. 

Ripley: The Races of Europe 327 

through Europe. These maps are highly suggestive. Those of Europe 
present the data in a form likely to be somewhat permanent, as the inves- 
tigations in that continent have been extensive and careful. While likely 
to be somewhat changed in detail, the main facts are probably well 
brought out. The maps of the world are likely — with further study — to 
be considerably modified. 

Having studied these fundamental characters in detail and mapped 
their geographical distribution, our author proceeds to examine the com- 
binations of these characters which present themselves with such fre- 
quency and persistency as to constitute race types. Of these combina- 
tions, or race types, he recognizes three. The first of his types has a 
long head, a long face, light hair, blue eyes, a narrow aquiline nose, and 
tall stature. The second has a broad or round head, a broad face, light 
chestnut hair, hazel gray eyes, a variable nose — though rather broad and 
heavy — a stocky build and medium stature. The third has a long head, 
long face, dark brown or black hair, dark eyes, a rather broad nose, and 
a slender frame of medium stature. These three types have been fairly 
defined by preceding authors but sad confusion exists in regard to their 
naming. Ripley finally decides upon the names Teutonic, Alpine and 
Mediterranean, respectively. His Alpine type is the Celtic type of many 
writers. He makes an elaborate argument against the name Celtic. It 
seems to us that a somewhat similar argument might lie against the name 
Teutonic, which is certainly bad. 

In thus recognizing and emphasizing three types our author is on 
delicate ground. In emphasizing them as he does he intentionally re- 
fuses to recognize a single white race, of which they may be branches. 
Boas has already criticized this, complaining that Ripley sees differences 
clearly, but refuses to see similarities. To this we shall return later. 
Others may easily criticize Dr. Ripley for not recognizing more than 
three types. Pursuing the same method of isolating physical characters 
and then seeking for actual and well-defined combinations of them, Deni- 
ker recognizes ten race-types in Europe. Whether or not he is on deli- 
cate ground here, Ripley recognizes his three types, defines them, names 
them, and then traces them throughout Europe. 

In a series of chapters he examines the population of different Euro- 
pean countries in detail. The titles of these chapters indicate the treat- 
ment. They are : France and Belgium ; The Basques ; The Teutonic 
Race — Scandinavia and Germany ; The Mediterranean Race — Italy, 
Spain, and Africa ; The Alpine Race — Switzerland, The Tyrol and the 
Netherlands ; The British Islands ; Russia and the Slavs ; The Jews and 
Semites ; Eastern Europe ; Western Asia. Nowhere does he find abso- 
lute purity of race ; almost everywhere two, or all three, of the funda- 
mental races come into contact, interpenetrate, cross, or influence one 
another. Even in Scandinavia, where the Teutonic race is almost alone, 
and in Lower Italy, where the Mediterranean race is almost sole posses- 
sor, there is some admixture. Ripley's own opinion regarding the origin 
of his three race -types appears to be : that the long-headed brunet Medi- 
vol. v. — 22 

328 Reviews of Books 

terranean is an African type, showing some approach to the negro ; that 
the Teutonic is an offshoot from the Mediterranean, locally developed 
amid peculiar physiographic surroundings ; that the broad-headed Alpine 
type is Asiatic and has moved in like a wedge between the two European 
populations. Even with his close adherence to his idea of three race- 
types, Ripley shows occasionally a tendency to go beyond them. It is 
not quite clear what he intends to do with his Cro-Magnon type. Some- 
times he almost erects it into a new race. And plainly he is often not 
quite sure that he has got rid of Deniker's Adriatic type. He attributes 
it to local environmental differences (which he does too with his own 
Teutonic race) but time and again he is forced to admit its reality. Of 
course this question of how many types are to be recognized is a funda- 
mental difficulty. In a criticism of Deniker's work, which appears in an 
appendix to his main discussion, Ripley says — " We must cast about for 
affinities. Here we touch as it seems to us the tap-root of Deniker's evil. 
The eye has been blurred by the vision of anthropometric divergences, so 
that it has failed to notice similarities." This is, almost to the word, 
Boas' s criticism of Ripley himself. 

On the title-page Ripley calls his book ' 'A Sociological Study. ' ' So 
far as we have traced it, it has been simple physical anthropology and 
ethnology. There follow two important chapters devoted to certain 
social problems. There has been a tendency of late to see in race the 
explanation of many social phenomena. Lapouge has been a prominent 
exponent of this tendency. Studies have been made to show the relation 
between divorce and race, suicide and race, " social stratification " and 
race, etc. Ripley aims to present the facts, and in so doing appears to 
largely reduce the importance of race as a factor. He also discusses 
"urban selection," to see whether the city draws more heavily upon one 
race than another in Europe. He also examines the " type " of the city 
and tries to explain how it arises. In a final chapter the author discusses 
acclimatization and inquires whether European races are qualified to take 
possession of and colonize distant possessions in other climates. Of his 
three types the Teutonic is least successful as a colonist, the Mediterranean 
is most so. The fact has vital import at this moment. 

That the book is interesting and highly important must be evident 
from this brief review of its contents. That it should contain much new 
material is not to be expected ; it is a re-presentation of the work of 
others, a combination, a harmonization. It possesses, however, features 
of originality and high importance. The series of maps, shaded accord- 
ing to a definite system, deserves high praise. No one, without actual 
experience, can realize the amount of care and labor such maps represent. 
To reduce the teachings of a multitude of measurements and observations 
to definite form and then to transfer the result, in graphic form, to a 
map, means a great amount of " dead work." The large series of type 
portraits, representing the types and races discussed, also demands high 
praise. To secure abundant illustration of types of one or two well- 
studied districts would have been a simple task ; to secure adequate illus- 

Ripley: The Races of Europe 329 

tration, symmetrically distributed, of the race-types of all the peoples of 
Europe and western Asia was a serious labor. Dr. Ripley's series in- 
cludes upwards of two hundred illustrations and in many cases — the 
majority perhaps — he is able to present front and profile views of the 
same individual. 

While gladly able to say so much that is good of this important work, 
we regret Dr. Ripley's frequently obscure, contradictory, or slovenly 
form of statement. A very few examples will illustrate our meaning. 
On page 40 we read, " On the other hand the Chinese are conspicuously 
long-headed," on p. 45, "The Chinese manifest a tendency toward an 
intermediate type of head form." How can these statements agree? 
On p. 62, Ripley says, "There are many peoples in Europe who are 
darker skinned than certain tribes in Asia or the Americas ; but there is 
none in which blondness of hair or eyes occurs to any considerable de- 
gree." Surely the meaning of this is obscure. On page 122, the 
author is speaking of the Teutonic race. In one paragraph he says 
" The narrow nose seems to be a very constant trait, as much so as the 
tendency to tall stature, ' ' and in the very next paragraph he says, ' ' A 
distinctive feature of the Teutonic race which we have not yet mentioned, 
is its prominent and narrow nose." (Italics are ours.) These are by 
no means the best examples we might select ; we have taken them quite 
at random. If they were the only examples they would hardly deserve 
mention, but the work abounds in them. On p. 80, after referring to 
varieties of dogs and horses, our author says " these abnormities." Why 
"abnormities"? Why, on the same page do we have "Terra del 
Fuego"? These obscure passages and strange misuses of words are the 
less excusable as Dr. Ripley must have gone over the work several times. 
His matter has been given as lectures to students, as a course of Lowell 
Institute lectures, as magazine articles, and now in book form. We 
might justly expect these blemishes to have disappeared. 

To serious students the Supplement to The Races of Europe will be al- 
most, or quite as important as the work itself. It is a bibliography of 
nearly two thousand titles. Its volume might have been easily increased, 
but it is a "selected" bibliography, including only those works which 
contain something of original contribution. Anthropological literature 
is widely scattered ; it is largely in foreign languages and much of it in 
languages but little read by the ordinary student. The importance of a 
good bibliography in this field cannot be over-stated. Mr. Ripley has 
done his work well. The body of the bibliography is arranged by au- 
thors in alphabetical order. An index follows, wherein the references 
are given under geographical headings, in chronological order. 

Frederick Starr.